A burn is a type of injury to skin caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation . The depth of burn is important in determining the management of the burn. Superficial epidermal burns are where the epidermis is damaged. The skin will be red, slightly swollen and painful but not blistered (first-degree burns). Superficial dermal burns are where the epidermis and part of the dermis are damaged. The skin will be pale pink, painful and there may be small blisters (first-degree burns). Deep dermal or partial thickness burns are where the epidermis and the dermis are damaged. This type of burn makes the skin turn red and blotchy. The skin may also be dry or moist, become swollen and blistered, and it may be very painful or painless (second-degree burn). Full thickness burns are where all three layers of skin (the epidermis, dermis and subcutis) are damaged. In this type of burn, the skin is often burnt away and the tissue underneath may appear pale or blackened. The remaining skin will be dry and white, brown or black with no blisters. The texture of the skin may also be leathery or waxy (third-degree burn). A fourth-degree burn additionally involves injury to deeper tissues, such as muscle or bone.
Current treatment depends on the severity of the burn. Superficial burns may be managed with little more than simple pain relievers, while major burns may require prolonged treatment in specialized burn centers. Cooling with tap water may help relieve pain and decrease damage; however, prolonged exposure may result in low body temperature. Partial-thickness burns may require cleaning with soap and water, followed by dressings. It is not clear how to manage blisters, but it is probably reasonable to leave them intact. Full-thickness burns usually require surgical treatments, such as skin grafting. Extensive burns often require large amounts of intravenous fluids because the subsequent inflammatory response will result in significant capillary fluid leakage and oedema. The most common complications of burns are related to infection.
While large burns can be fatal, modern treatments developed since 1960 have significantly improved the outcomes, especially in children and young adults . Every year, around 13,000 people are admitted to hospital for burns and scalds in UK. Many thousands more go to hospital accident and emergency (A&E) departments. Globally, about 11 million people seek medical treatment, and 300,000 die from burns each year . In the United States, approximately 4% of those admitted to a burn center die from their injuries . The long-term outcome is primarily related to the size of burn and the age of the person affected.
JEL0305 is a combination of a potent but low dose off patent anti-inflammatory and our licenced nanoparticle delivery technology. This could be a suitable formulation and/or a dressing for local application. JEL0305 will have antimicrobial and wound healing properties as well as anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties (13, 16).
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